A Brief History of Broadcast
Since the turn of the century, and more precisely, since the 1950's, humanity has surrounded itself with artificial electric and magnetic fields as a result of the increasing use of electricity as an indispensable part of every day life. A short history of EM radiation usage would be very difficult to draw, however it has been around 90 years since public radio transmissions began and 60 years since radar was first used. Today, it is believed that our exposure is 200 million times greater than in the beginning of the century.
Once we understand the whole REP process, and take into consideration the global temperature anomalies, weather events, ocean oscillations and the rise of our broadcasting technology, we can look back into history and see a hidden story unfold in the physics of the atmosphere. To have a clear grasp there are many important concepts to keep in mind.
The effects of our historic broadcast on the atmosphere and the global temperature can be broken down into five time periods and four processes.
1909 The first regular broadcast over the airwaves.
1917 – 1919 WWI brought about government regulation and nearly all AM
broadcast ventures and equipment were halted and confiscated.
1919 – 1925 Broadcast Boom can be seen in the global temperature anomalies
graph as the REP process caused ozone depletion.
1946/47 The end of WWII brought about the largest shift in man made radio
wave propagation through the ionosphere between the US and the UK
1970’s The rise of FM and many other networks from satellite to cellular
cause an increase in electron density that allows the EEP-NOx ozone
depletion process to occur.
1.A rise in AM broadcast causes electron precipitation that leads to ozone depletion which causes the global temperature to rise through increased water vapor via the greenhouse effect. 2.The few times in history this process has been hindered can be seen in the global anomalies graph as a drop in temperature or flat spots that maintain on the 5 year mean. 3.Television causes a suppression of ozone depletion and the REP process and can be seen in the global temperature anomalies graph, as the temperature falls. This causes the water vapor to condense, and can be seen as peaks in historic weather events and ocean oscillations. 4.As FM overtook AM in the 1970’s it filled the gap between the E and F layers of the ionosphere and created a conductive bridge for the cyclotron energy to continue ozone depletion through the REP process.
It is important to understand a little about the history of the broadcast industry to understand its chronological effects on the atmosphere. As we can see through the previous sections of Broadcast Theory, the AM stations that broadcast in the gyrofrequency range (630kHz ~ 1630kHz) excite and create plasma waves in the ionosphere leading to electron precipitation (the REP process). This leads to ozone depletion which causes the global temperature to rise through increased water vapor via the greenhouse effect. In 1909 when broadcasting first began it is hard to say that one AM broadcast station could have had much of an impact on the atmosphere. But there are a few considerations to take into account, such as the antennae design and the power necessary to transmit a receivable signal to early receivers that were of a crude design.
"The top load wire can increase radiated power by 2 to 4 times (3 to 6 dB) for a given base current." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-antenna
"ERP is equal to the input power to the antenna multiplied by the gain of the antenna." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effective_radiated_power
The first experimental antenna designs were large and complex using a ‘flattop’ antenna design, which propagates skywave far better (x2 ~ 4) than the ‘vertical’ antennas that we developed later in the 30’s. Early skywave caused radio signals to bounce back from the sky and creating a great deal of interference like heterodyne tones that magnify the effects of interference 10 times and upset broadcasters. The HAARP scientific transmitter in Alaska uses a flattop antenna design for its effectiveness in ionosphere frequency pumping and experimental excitation of plasma wave phenomena such as those seen in the REP process.
Our history of broadcast technology paints a clear picture as to the amount of power these early stations generated using powerful spark gap technology.
“huge spark stations of tremendous power were developed, using giant antennas. By later standards these early stations were absurdly overpowered – in fact they were so powerful that their signals were probably traveling around the world more than once. However receivers were so insensitive, these transmitting behemoths were needed in order to insure quality service.” (Page 86)
On Building the Broadcast Band : http://www.oldradio.com/archives/general/buildbcb.html
1917 – 1919
Perhaps these huge spark stations were too powerful because the government confiscated nearly all broadcasting and receiving equipment in 1917 after the onset of WWI, no doubt in fear that the enemy would receive news and information through these channels for tactical purposes. Westinghouse was the only civilian station allowed to continue broadcasting. During the war, the government and military experimented with spark gap technology and refined it to create vacuum tubes that were more efficient and controlled. This too could have had a profound effect on the generation of plasma waves in the ionosphere compared to spark gap technology. In 1919 when the war restrictions were lifted, the vacuum tube technology replaced the spark gap transmitters, yet however more efficient the vacuum tubes may have been, the number of stations that came over the airwaves might have easily outweighed any reduction of plasma waves in the ionosphere and the REP process due to the advancement of the technology. During this time it is important to note the appearance of a flat spot on the global temperature anomalies graph. As I have mentioned previously flat spots are not possible in any natural cycle over such a time period of 3 years. The effects of astrophysical radio sources on ozone levels such as solar proton and cosmic rays events last no longer than 8 months as passing events. With this in mind the only source of ozone depletion that could have a longer lasting effect on this process could be from a bright broadband source of an earthly origin. Broadcasting electromagnetic energy into the ionosphere – magnetosphere mechanism is the only source that could provide constant depletion through the REP process.
1919 – 1926
The broadcast boom occurred with the world’s exciting discovery of this new technology, and can be seen in the global temperature graph. As broadcast took off, the temperature soared faster and higher. By 1920, human voice and strains of music were heard regularly over the airwaves. In 1921 there was 1 regular broadcast station and by the end of 1922 there were 690 stations licensed. Radio grew explosively between 1921 and 1926, with the biggest part of the boom between 1922 and 1925. Newspapers and department stores started broadcasting and advertising. The Netherlands, Argentina and other countries followed suit as it began to spread across the globe. It is also important to understand that pre-WW2 stations were listed by TRANSMITTER power (TPO), not ERP, Thus 50kw using flat top antenna was actually 2-4 times higher as ERP (100kW ~ 200kW)
"We demonstrate that signals at 28.5 kHz emitted from the Naval (NAU) transmitter in Puerto Rico efectively couple into ionospheric ducts, induced/enhanced by the Arecibo HF heater, and propagate into the conjugate hemisphere as ducted whistlers. Also presented are suspected radar detections of whistler-triggered electron precipitation events.
NAU emits VLF waves at a power and frequency of 100 kW and 28.5 kHz, respectively."
The onset of WWII (1939 – 1945) brought further government experimentation and expansion to broadcasting and receiving technology. During this time control of the airwaves was still a complicated issue with many new problems arising which led to an overhaul of the broadcast system between new FM and television frequency allocations, while AM stayed the same. Although television became commercially available in the late 30’s, it wasn’t until after the war with the FCC’s revamp of frequency allocation that television broadcasting really took off, with new television transmitters being built all over the United States. It went from four stations in 1942 to more applications than the FCC could handle in 1946 even though it allotted 400 stations in 140 metropolitan cities with a maximum power of 50kw.
Also during 1946 the UK war restrictions on broadcast lifted resulting in a television broadcast boom and caused the tropospheric ducting of UK television signals which were received around the world, that together with the US resulted in the largest frequency shift of man made radio wave propagation ever to occur in the ionosphere. This resulted in a massive electron density shift in the ionosphere and polar regions which can be seen in weather records and ocean oscillation cycles. Television operates in a frequency band that has been shown through experiments at HAARP to cause a suppression of the REP process. The effects of television on the ionosphere have already been covered in earlier chapters as well as the REP process and its effects on ozone, solar radiation, water vapor and the greenhouse effect. Refer to those sections for more information.
It is also important to understand that, both CO2 and solar activity were on the rise during the 5 years the temperature took a nose dive from 1947 - 51.
Thus ruling them out as likely causes.
“The BBC temporarily ceased transmissions on September 1, 1939 as World War II began. After the BBC channel B1 television service recommenced in 1946, distant reception reports were received from various parts of the world, including Italy, South Africa, India, the Middle East, North America and the Caribbean.” (Page 94)
“World War II research had raised issues of interference from sky waves in the 42 to 50MHz band which had been previously assigned. The catalyst for the dispute over this allocation and an advocate to move the range to higher frequencies was an FCC engineer, Kenneth Norton. During the war, he served in a capacity which made him knowledgeable of the experimental programs in the sky-wave propagation of VHF signals. He combined the War Department results with data obtained from the Bureau of Standards, and from measurements obtained on a commercial FM station, WGTR in Paxton, Massachusetts, to develop new predictions of VHF sky-wave transmission. He calculated the amount of co-channel interference in the 42 to 50MHz band. He concluded that objectional interference would occur, especially in rural areas, at the extreme end of the broadcast range. Norton assumed that the broadcast signal must be ten times as strong as the interfering signal. On May 9, 1945, the FCC issued an order to raise the band for FM to 84 to 102MHz frequency range. Just two days earlier, the War Production Board announced the plan to permit the manufacturing of radio receivers. The manufacturers of the 42 to 50MHz equipment. owners of sets, and in particular Zenith, a leader in the band, had lost a profitable edge, and owned obsolete equipment. The FCC ruling also included specifications on channel widths, power, antenna height and frequency assignments. Three classes of stations were established, local stations with maximum radiated power of 50KW, regional with 50, and 100KW” (Page 92)
For decades, our use of television frequencies dampened the cyclotron (gyro) energy that occurred in the REP process from AM broadcast. In fact if it weren’t for the solar anomaly in 1960, with solar cycle 19, we would have likely maintained a relatively constant temperature till FM finally overtook AM in the 70’s. The golden age of radio had already given way to the top forty style broadcast of the modern era, and by this time the ionosphere was being over driven and over loaded with electrical input of electromagnetic energy from broadcast and satellite and cellular networks. The current trend in HDTV broadcast and increasing cellular and wireless networks will no doubt bring new challenges to our rising global temperatures as long as we continue to broadcast in the gyro frequency range, the source of our ozone depletion. Again the effects of FM on the environment have been discussed in earlier chapters so please refer accordingly for more information on this process.
Another space-based RF survey at 1.0–5.6 MHz measured from 100,000 to 120,000 km above Earth is reported in the work of LaBelle et al. , also compared noise amplitudes with a previous survey [Herman et al., 1973] and found evidence of increasing man-made terrestrial background between 1973 and 1988.