Polar Regions & Solar Variance
As we look into the polar regions we can see this complex system of electrical rivers and particle streams. The EIC waves travel as an electron beam spiraling along the magnetic field lines with O+ and H+ ions that flow to the polar regions where they cause ion outflows up along the open Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) lines or the closed field lines of the radiation belt. The magnetic field lines come down upon the ionosphere as flux tubes in which the ions flow up and a charge exchange occurs causing electrons to precipitate down in what is called a Flux Transfer Event (FTE)

“the outflow from the ionosphere is two orders of magnitude greater than predicted for the “classical” polar wind” - in the wake of the Flux Transfer Events (FTE’s) on the dayside magnetopause.    Click to go to

Could it be that this extra ion upflow is coming from radio broadcast towers transmitting in the gyro-frequency range? Considering the dynamics involving the particle transfer across the magnetic field lines and the ionosphere, it may be that the wave intensifications crossing the flux tubes in the ionosphere decrease the parallel force, which the particles trapped by the magnetic field lines rely on to mirror them back along the field line to the opposite southern pole. This changes the pitch angle diffusion of particles entering the polar cusp. In this wave crossing the perpendicular force is increased allowing more of these particles to interact with our atmosphere and increase the amount of electron precipitation in the polar region.


R E P- Relativistic Electron Precipitation

The particles raining down have energy of those more commonly found in the trapped ring current and the radiation belt. Which can rain enough particles down that it could drain itself in one day! Thats alot!

“The high altitude  polar cap is generally one of the most tenuous regions of the magnetosphere, but surprisingly, the polar densities are very high, several 100 cm-3, and interestingly, the density peaks at the central polar cap.”

Although the stratospheric ozone layer can experience greater depletion in the wake of solar and cosmic ray events, REP is constant and even exhibits consistent patterns. In fact they found that most of the NO2 appears to be from the ionosphere in the aroural region.

Flux decrease events usually begin in the pre-midnight sector (1500-2400 MLT), and typically show decreases of around 3 three orders of magnitude in >2 MeV electron flux within a few hours of onset, followed by an extended period of low flux suggesting permanent electron loss... Precipitation into the atmosphere of electrons driven into the bounce loss cone was suggested as the primary loss mechanism, through interaction with electron cyclotron harmonic waves [Horne and Thorne, 2000], electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves [Summers and Thorne, 2003], whistler waves [Horne and Thorne, 2003], separately or in combination.Click & go


Theory for the electron precipitation and current system that produces a magnetospheric substorm








WEP-Whistler induced Electron Precipitation

Whistler induced electron precipitation occurs in regions of . The main driving mechanism for whistler mode waves is lightning and VLF transmitters. These whistler mode waves travel from the polar regions so what you are looking at are rivers and streams of particles and charges being fuelled by broadcasting charged energy into the atmosphere through the gyro frequency as well as a host of other frequencies. These frequencies reflect off and bounce around in the blanket of electricity called the ionosphere magnetosphere coupling and create ozone depleting NO2. with the northern hemisphere being almost twice that for the southern hemisphere and the strongest energy inputs occur over North America the largest radio polluters.






              















Using scientific transmitters we can send powerful  beams of radio frequencies through the ionosphere causing all kinds of chaos that heat the ionosphere and drive electron precipitation. It can become so stimulated in the magnetosphere that the high energy electrons can come down as a 2.45GHz cyclotron maser beam upon the atmosphere and heat the water vapor and cause the polar ice caps to melt while putting a hole in the ozone layer above. This is like a reverse ionospheric heater and might effect the hyro system under the ice caps. 

Now imagine sticking an electrified fork in the microwave and you get the US/Canadian power grid!

The last section will look at the possible ramifications of an increase in electron density at the polar region. We will look at the effects on the electro-negativity, cosmic ray collisions within the ozone layer, and the reactions with nitrogen forming nitrogen oxide that rips apart ozone molecules just like CFCs.

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AARDVARK
Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP)
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Decent of NOx from Thermospheric Altitudes
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Background Material
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Whistler induced Electron Precipitation (WEP)
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WEP Schematic.
WEP Deposition
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Whistler Wave Packet
Reverse Ionosphere heating of Polar Ice Caps
Another interesting fact is that NLC - Noctilucient clouds are mysterious glowing blue clouds that form in the mesosphere since the 70's has been suggested as a sign of global warming. These NLC clouds form right in the areas of WEP (60 lat S & N) and  glowing blue color is a chemoluminecent nitrogen reaction

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- NO2
Solar Cycle 23 Project: Summary of Panel Findings


The general trend in recent solar activity cycles (Figure 1) is toward larger amplitude sunspot cycles; Cycle 19 was the largest in recorded history (smoothed sunspot number maximum of 201 in March, 1958), and Cycle 22 was the third largest (smoothed maximum of 159 in July, 1989). Cycles 21 and 22 both showed annual averages of geomagnetic activity that were large in comparison with most cycles in the record of aa indices (Figure 2). The dramatic variability from one cycle to the next in these sunspot and geomagnetic records shows the difficulty in making empirical predictions of both types of activity. The issue is further complicated by the lack of a successful quantitative, theoretical model of the Sun's magnetic cycle.

The prediction technique based on the empirical result that odd-numbered cycles are larger than their preceding cycle, suggests that the next cycle will exceed Cycle 22 and could be larger than Cycle 19. The general trend of cycle amplitudes is also increasing; recent cycles have been large (see Figure 1). Based on such an analysis, there is a reasonable probability that Cycle 23 will equal, or exceed, Cycle 19. This does not, however, consider the observed conditions that are the basis of the precursor technique. The conditions presently being observed in the Sun-Earth environment are not consistent with those observed prior to Cycle 19 and do not support the idea that Cycle 23 will be as large as Cycle 19.


New sunspot cycle to be bigger than average

In turn, this serves as a good indicator of where the sunspot cycle is headed, but it's not an absolute measure. Hathaway has several graphs showing different prediction methods applied to past sunspot cycles. That is, they used the data from early in a cycle to "predict" what the rest of the cycle would do. Most predictions match reality fairly close, except for Cycle 19, the current record cycle, which peaked at 190 in sunspot number in 1957, just as the first space physics satellites were being launched.
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Solar Cycle 19   (1960)

This solar cycle was the largest sunspot cycle on record peaking in March of 1958 and ever since our cycles have been out of wack with double peaks appearing since 2000. The cyclotron maser waves have been observed heating particles to high temperatures well into the sun earth connection and have been atributed to a depression in the sun's photosphere.

During solar maximum, magnetic fields above the Sun's surface become impressively tangled, particularly near sunspots. Twisted magnetic fields -- stretched like taut rubber bands -- can snap back and explode, powering solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Sunspots are the most visible sign of those complex magnetic fields -- but not the only one. Another sign is solar radio emissions, which come from hot gas trapped in magnetic loops. "The radio Sun is even brighter now than it was in 2000," says Hathaway. By the radio standard, this second peak is larger than the first. Hathaway notes a widespread misconception that solar activity varies every 11 years "like a pure sinusoid." In fact, he says, solar activity is chaotic; there is more than one period.Earth-directed solar explosions, for instance, tend to happen every 27 days -- the time it takes for sunspots to rotate once around the Sun. There is also an occasional 155-day cycle of solar flares. No one knows what causes it. And the double peaks of recent solar maxima are separated by approximately 18 months.                    Click & go

In 1960 Kunzel first coined the "delta" - sunspot which are driven by a kink instability in the magnetic flux tube near the suns photosphere, these sunspots exhibit defferent characteristics than regular sunspots. The kink instability may be caused by a convection effect in the edge of the magnetic flux tube generated by cyclotron particle heating particularly protons are sensitive to this as well as magnetosonic waves.. The polarity differential in the photosphere spots may be a result of a charge imbalance causing an increase in electron charge transfer to equalize the ion upflow just as CME Coronal mass ejections squeeze ions out of our magnetotail to reconnection. It may be that the first peak seen in recent double peakes cycles is actually cyclotron induced backscatter off the photosphere (due to charge imbalance) that cause the kink instability to form. It may be that deltas weren't noticed before the 60's because there were none and this is a recent phenomena. It is difficult to think that we may impact the sun, but keep in mind that we are the only ones really complaining, the sun is hardly bothered by us nuking ourselves. Although the electrical connection over the polar cusp has made me wonder. The sun has an electomagnetic balance with each planet in its system and a certain amount of energy is given and recieved along these lines electrically. If you change the overall charge of the polar cap say more O+ creates more + polarity, this balance could play out along the magnetic field lines that connect this region to the sun.

Last year, scientists using a technique called helioseismology, which can probe conditions within the Sun much like seismic waves reveal the interior structure of our planet, announced that currents of gas at the base of the convective zone speed and slacken every 16 months. "That's about the same as the time between the double peaks of recent solar maxima," notes Hathaway. Perhaps the two are connected. "It's hard to be sure," he cautions, because the detailed inner workings of stellar magnetic dynamos remain a mystery. "Helioseismology of the Sun, which can probe beneath its visible surface, is still a young field. We need more time to understand completely how the internal rhythms of our star affect the solar cycle.

The gas is mostly O+ ions injected into the convective zone from broadcast energy. We dig it up as coal from the earth and pump it into the sky and the energy that once dissipated ran out of room to dissipate and started to overflow. This is especially the case with broadcasting frequencies on the gyro frequency. It is like the harmonic resonate vibration of one tuning fork to another, but these are strings of the fabric we live in, our environment. The O+ oxygen fuels the "fire" so to speak in the convective zone of the sun where the electrons are eager to balance the flow. Essentially the cyclotron maser boils the surface of the photosphere.

It could also be that the double peak in the solar cycle is related to the man made cyclotron induced ionization of the suns photosphere at a high enough rate to generate backscatter to form a kink. instability. There may also be a relation to the Maximum usable frequency and the attenuation of radio waves that vary by season. This seasonal variation effects the cyclotron maser waves traveling through the F layer of the ionosphere and is likely to follow the natural cycle closely, yet the difference is seen later in the double peak in sunspots with the first peak in delta sunspots (artificial) and the natural sunspot cycle following.


The 155 day cycle of solar activity is the cyclotron induced sunspots and varies on the earth broadcast attenuation and cyclotron maser in/out phase (MUF- MIn) in the polar regions?






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Polar Regions - Parts & Process


As we look into the polar regions we can see a complex system of electrical rivers and particle streams. There are four basic concepts that must be understood to follow the path of energy through the polar regions in relation to Broadcast Theory.



1.EIC waves cause electron precipitation which creates NO2 and OH+ that deplete ozone.

2.EIC waves cause ions of oxygen to flow up magnetic field lines toward the sun.

3.The ions of oxygen that flow toward the sun inject into the convective zone and cause sunspots.

4.These sunspots in turn throw energy back at earth in the form of solar proton events that further deplete ozone. 

5.Powerline Harmonic Radiation (PLHR) effects the magnetospheric generation of cyclotron maser plasma waves combine with increasing      
           electron density in the polar regions act as a secondary source of ionization in ozones fragile creation process.




1.Considering the dynamics involving the particle transfer across the magnetic field lines and the ionosphere, it may be that the wave intensifications crossing the flux tubes in the ionosphere decrease the parallel force, which the particles trapped by the magnetic field lines rely on to mirror them back along the field line to the opposite southern pole. This changes the pitch angle diffusion of particles entering the polar cusp. In this wave crossing the perpendicular force is increased allowing more of these particles to interact with our atmosphere and increase the amount of electron precipitation in the polar region.
I will get into the effects of electron precipitation and the different kinds in the next section on Ozone.


“Parallel to the well-known effects related to the seismic activity in the top side ionosphere such as small-scale irregularities generated due to acoustic waves (Hegai et.al.1997), and large-scale irregularities generated by anomalous electric field (Pulinets at al 2000), the modification of magnetic flux tube are also common features (Kim and Hegai 1997, Pulinets at al. 2002) So it seems that changes of the magnetic flux topology correlated with seismic activity can lead to the increase in the precipitation of energetic electron fluxes and, as a consequence, can yields excitation of the HF whistler mode. , H. Rothkaehl 2005”
(Page 27)




2. The EIC waves travel as an electron beam spiraling along the magnetic field line with O+ and H+ ions that flow to the polar regions where they cause ion outflows up along the open Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) lines or the closed field lines of the radiation belt. The magnetic field lines come down upon the ionosphere as flux tubes in which the ions flow up and a charge exchange occurs causing electrons to precipitate down in what is called a Flux Transfer Event (FTE)


“One of the oldest known effects is electron heating in the F region which is caused
largely by a thermal instability involving upper-hybrid plasma waves. Recently such electron
heating has been shown to cause field-aligned ion outflows, which may help to further
understand some of the naturally occurring outflows.” (Page 53)


“The outflow from the ionosphere is two orders of magnitude greater than predicted for the ‘‘classical’’ polar wind..” (Page 57)

Could it be that this extra ion upflow is coming from radio broadcast towers transmitting in the gyro-frequency range?




3.The ions of oxygen that flow toward the sun takes approximately 11 – 12 years to reach the convective zone of the sun where gas injections have been observed. The convective zone of the sun is a place of powerful reactions and the electrons on the surface of the sun will eagerly leap forth to equalize and charge imbalance incurred by a gas injection. These are many facets to this process that will not be fully covered in this version of Broadcast Theory, but are explained in further detail in the larger version.




4.Sunspots throw energy back at earth in the form of solar proton events that can slash ozone levels 70%. These can be seen to not only follow the pattern of our historic use of broadcast frequencies, but cause a temperature variation that can be clearly seen in 1960. This was also known as Solar Cycle 19 and was the largest sunspot cycle on record and threw our ability to predict solar cycles out of alignment. Sunspots occur naturally according to the orbital paths of the planets around the sun and the crossing interplanetary magnetic field lines of two planets that are in alignment with the sun. There is a wealth of information on this topic as well as observations that will not be covered in this brief version of Broadcast Theory.

“The general trend in recent solar activity cycles (Figure 1) is toward larger amplitude sunspot cycles; Cycle 19 was the largest in recorded history (smoothed sunspot number maximum of 201 in March, 1958)”

“Hathaway has several graphs showing different prediction methods applied to past sunspot cycles. That is, they used the data from early in a cycle to "predict" what the rest of the cycle would do. Most predictions match reality fairly close, except for Cycle 19, the current record cycle, which peaked at 190 in sunspot number in 1957, just as the first space physics satellites were being launched.”
“Earth-directed solar explosions, for instance, tend to happen every 27 days -- the time it takes for sunspots to rotate once around the Sun. There is also an occasional 155-day cycle of solar flares. No one knows what causes it. And the double peaks of recent solar maxima are separated by approximately 18 months.
The source of all this variability is the turbulent Sun itself. The outermost third of our star -- the "convective zone" -- is boiling like hot water on a stove. California-sized bubbles rise 200,000 km from the base of the zone to the Sun's surface where they turn over and "pop," releasing heat (generated by nuclear reactions in the core) to space. Below the convective zone lies the "radiative zone" -- a calmer region where photons, not mass motions, transport the Sun's energy outward. Says Hathaway: "The Sun's magnetic field is generated at the boundary between these two layers where strong electric currents flow."
 

The first graph clearly shows that the two are correlated, but because the temperature flux comes before the solar flux, the sun cannot drive the temperature. This can only occur if the same mechanism that causes the temperature to rise also caused the solar variation resulting in solar cycle 19, the largest unpredicted cycle on record in 1960.
The 11 - 12 years between the two is the time is takes for the O+ particles to reach the sun. More of this is covered in the full version of Broadcast Theory.




5.Scientist have observed Powerline Harmonic Radiation (PLHR) on the magnetospheric generation of cyclotron maser plasma waves in combination with increasing electron density in the polar regions act as a secondary source of ionization in the ozone creation process. There is more on PLHR and this process in the full version of Broadcast Theory.

“Many observations of PLHR related emissions have been made. It seems that PLHR can control many more natural emissions than has usually been believed. Recently a cooperation was started with Dr. M. Parrot searching for PLHR-related events in the Freja satellite data which have been recorded simultaneously with our ground-based observations.”

“Parrot reviewed power line harmonic radiation; spectral lines spaced 50-60 Hz apart in the magnetosphere and generally observed to drift in frequency. The "Sunday effect" had been used confirm an anthropogenic source (no natural 7-day period). He speculated on an atmospheric/ionospheric link between PLHR and the greenhouse effect (in addition to the usually quoted increase in CO2 emissions associated with power generation), which could increase in importance as electrical power consumption continued to increase.”

Peculiarities of Long-Term Trends of Surface Temperature in Antarctica and
                   Click & go                  Their Possible Connections with Outer Belt Electron Precipitation
Visual Aids
W E P - Whistler induced Electron Precipitation
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The electron-cyclotron maser instability as the source of solar type V continuum 
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Cyclotron plasma waves flow toward the polar regions and drive electron precipitation and Oxygen ions that flow up closed magnetic field lines to the conjugate hemisphere and up open interplanetary magnetic field lines toward the sun