Polar Regions & Solar Variance
As we look into the polar regions we can see this complex system of electrical rivers and particle streams. The EIC waves travel as an electron beam spiraling along the magnetic field lines with O+ and H+ ions that flow to the polar regions where they cause shifts in polar ion density altering flux tube morphology along Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) lines and cause ions to flow up the closed field lines of the radiation belt. The magnetic field lines come down upon the ionosphere as flux tubes in which the ions flow up and a charge exchange occurs causing electrons to precipitate down in what is called a Flux Transfer Event FTE 

“the outflow from the ionosphere is two orders of magnitude greater than predicted for the “classical” polar wind” - in the wake of the Flux Transfer Events (FTE’s) on the dayside magnetopause.    Click to go to

Could it be that this extra ion outflow is coming from radio broadcast towers transmitting in the VLF and gyro-frequency range? Considering the dynamics involving the particle transfer across the magnetic field lines and the ionosphere, it may be that the wave intensifications crossing the flux tubes in the ionosphere decrease the perpendicular force, which the particles trapped by the magnetic field lines rely on to mirror them back along the field line to the opposite southern pole. This changes the pitch angle diffusion of particles entering the polar cusp. In this wave crossing the perpendicular force is decreased allowing more of these particles to interact with our atmosphere and increase the amount of electron precipitation to the loss cone of the polar vortex in polar regions

R E P- Relativistic Electron Precipitation

The particles raining down have energy of those more commonly found in the trapped ring current and the radiation belt. Which can rain enough particles down that it could drain itself in one day! Thats alot!

“The high altitude  polar cap is generally one of the most tenuous regions of the magnetosphere, but surprisingly, the polar densities are very high, several 100 cm-3, and interestingly, the density peaks at the central polar cap.” 

Although the stratospheric ozone layer can experience greater depletion in the wake of solar and cosmic ray events, REP is constant and even exhibits consistent patterns. In fact they found that most of the NOx appears to be from the ionosphere in the aroural region. 

Flux decrease events usually begin in the pre-midnight sector (1500-2400 MLT), and typically show decreases of around 3 three orders of magnitude in >2 MeV electron flux within a few hours of onset, followed by an extended period of low flux suggesting permanent electron loss... Precipitation into the atmosphere of electrons driven into the bounce loss cone was suggested as the primary loss mechanism, through interaction with electron cyclotron harmonic waves [Horne and Thorne, 2000], electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves [Summers and Thorne, 2003], whistler waves [Horne and Thorne, 2003], separately or in combination.Click & go

Theory for the electron precipitation and current system that produces a magnetospheric substorm


Whistler induced electron precipitation occurs in regions of . The main driving mechanism for whistler mode waves is lightning and VLF transmitters. These whistler mode waves travel from the polar regions so what you are looking at are rivers and streams of particles and charges being fuelled by broadcasting charged energy into the atmosphere through the gyro frequency as well as a host of other frequencies. These frequencies reflect off and bounce around in the blanket of electricity called the ionosphere magnetosphere coupling and create ozone depleting NOx. with the northern hemisphere being almost twice that for the southern hemisphere and the strongest energy inputs occur over North America the largest radio polluters. 


Using scientific transmitters we can send powerful beams of radio frequencies through the ionosphere causing all kinds of chaos that heat the ionosphere and drive electron precipitation. It can become so stimulated in the magnetosphere that the high energy electrons can come down as a cyclotron maser beam upon the atmosphere and heat the water vapor and cause the polar ice caps to melt while putting a hole in the ozone layer above. This is like a reverse ionospheric heater and might effect the tropospheric hydrology.  

The last section will look at the possible ramifications of an increase in electron density at the polar region. We will look at the effects on the electro-negativity, cosmic ray collisions within the ozone layer, and the reactions with nitrogen forming nitrogen oxide that rips apart ozone molecules just like CFCs.
Relativistic Electron Precipitation (REP)
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Decent of NOx from Thermospheric Altitudes
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Background Material
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Whistler induced Electron Precipitation (WEP)
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WEP Schematic.
WEP Deposition
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Whistler Wave Packet
Another interesting fact is that NLC - Noctilucient clouds are mysterious glowing blue clouds that form in the mesosphere since the 70's has been suggested as a sign of global warming. These NLC clouds form right in the areas of WEP (60 lat S & N) and  glowing blue color is a chemoluminecent nitrogen reaction 

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- NOx
Solar Cycle 23 Project: Summary of Panel Findings
The general trend in recent solar activity cycles (Figure 1) is toward larger amplitude sunspot cycles; Cycle 19 was the largest in recorded history (smoothed sunspot number maximum of 201 in March, 1958), and Cycle 22 was the third largest (smoothed maximum of 159 in July, 1989). Cycles 21 and 22 both showed annual averages of geomagnetic activity that were large in comparison with most cycles in the record of aa indices (Figure 2). The dramatic variability from one cycle to the next in these sunspot and geomagnetic records shows the difficulty in making empirical predictions of both types of activity. The issue is further complicated by the lack of a successful quantitative, theoretical model of the Sun's magnetic cycle.
The prediction technique based on the empirical result that odd-numbered cycles are larger than their preceding cycle, suggests that the next cycle will exceed Cycle 22 and could be larger than Cycle 19. The general trend of cycle amplitudes is also increasing; recent cycles have been large (see Figure 1). Based on such an analysis, there is a reasonable probability that Cycle 23 will equal, or exceed, Cycle 19. This does not, however, consider the observed conditions that are the basis of the precursor technique. The conditions presently being observed in the Sun-Earth environment are not consistent with those observed prior to Cycle 19 and do not support the idea that Cycle 23 will be as large as Cycle 19.

New sunspot cycle to be bigger than average

In turn, this serves as a good indicator of where the sunspot cycle is headed, but it's not an absolute measure. Hathaway has several graphs showing different prediction methods applied to past sunspot cycles. That is, they used the data from early in a cycle to "predict" what the rest of the cycle would do. Most predictions match reality fairly close, except for Cycle 19, the current record cycle, which peaked at 190 in sunspot number in 1957, just as the first space physics satellites were being launched.
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                  Solar Cycle 19  ~  (1958-60)

This solar cycle was the largest sunspot cycle on record peaking in March of 1958 and ever since our cycles have been out of wack with double peaks appearing since 2000. The cyclotron maser waves have been observed heating particles to high temperatures well into the sun earth connection and have been atributed to a depression in the sun's photosphere. 

During solar maximum, magnetic fields above the Sun's surface become impressively tangled, particularly near sunspots. Twisted magnetic fields -- stretched like taut rubber bands -- can snap back and explode, powering solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Sunspots are the most visible sign of those complex magnetic fields -- but not the only one. Another sign is solar radio emissions, which come from hot gas trapped in magnetic loops. "The radio Sun is even brighter now than it was in 2000," says Hathaway. By the radio standard, this second peak is larger than the first. Hathaway notes a widespread misconception that solar activity varies every 11 years "like a pure sinusoid." In fact, he says, solar activity is chaotic; there is more than one period.Earth-directed solar explosions, for instance, tend to happen every 27 days -- the time it takes for sunspots to rotate once around the Sun. There is also an occasional 155-day cycle of solar flares. No one knows what causes it. And the double peaks of recent solar maxima are separated by approximately 18 months.                      Click for Source

 In 1960 Kunzel first coined the "delta" - sunspot which are driven by a kink instability in the magnetic flux tube near the suns photosphere, these sunspots exhibit different characteristics than regular sunspots. The kink instability may be caused by a convection effect in the edge of the magnetic flux tube generated by cyclotron maser particle heating particularly protons are sensitive to this as well as magnetosonic waves.. The polarity differential in the photosphere spots may be a result of a charge imbalance causing an increase in electron charge transfer to equalize the ion upflow just as CME Coronal mass ejections squeeze ions out of our magnetotail to reconnection. It may be that the first peak seen in recent double peaked cycles is actually cyclotron induced backscatter off the photosphere (due to charge imbalance) that cause the kink instability to form. It may be that deltas weren't noticed before the 60's because there were none and this is a recent phenomena. It is difficult to think that we may impact the sun, but the sun has an electromagnetic balance with each planet in its system and a certain amount of energy is given and received along these lines electrically. If you change the overall charge of the polar cap say more O+ creates more + polarity, this balance could play out along the magnetic field lines that connect this region to the sun. 

Last year, scientists using a technique called helioseismology, which can probe conditions within the Sun much like seismic waves reveal the interior structure of our planet, announced that currents of gas at the base of the convective zone speed and slacken every 16 months. "That's about the same as the time between the double peaks of recent solar maxima," notes Hathaway. Perhaps the two are connected. "It's hard to be sure," he cautions, because the detailed inner workings of stellar magnetic dynamos remain a mystery. "Helioseismology of the Sun, which can probe beneath its visible surface, is still a young field. We need more time to understand completely how the internal rhythms of our star affect the solar cycle. 

The kink in the solar terrestrial flux tube changes the rate that gases leave the solar surface via the flux tubes. The gas is mostly O+ ion that fluxes into the convective zone from broadcast induced cyclotron maser heating the of protons in the solar wind.  This is especially the case with broadcasting frequencies on the gyro frequency. It is like the harmonic resonate vibration of one tuning fork to another, but these are strings of the fabric we live in, our environment. The O+ oxygen fuels the "fire" so to speak in the convective zone of the sun where the electrons are eager to balance the flow. Essentially the cyclotron maser boils the surface of the photosphere. 

It could also be that the double peak in the solar cycle is related to the man made cyclotron induced ionization of the suns photosphere at a high enough rate to generate backscatter to form a kink. instability. There may also be a relation to the Maximum usable frequency and the attenuation of radio waves that vary by season. This seasonal variation effects the cyclotron maser waves traveling through the F layer of the ionosphere and is likely to follow the natural cycle closely, yet the difference is seen later in the double peak in sunspots with the first peak in delta sunspots (artificial) and the natural sunspot cycle following.  

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Polar Regions - Parts & Process

As we look into the polar regions we can see a complex system of electrical rivers and particle streams. There are four basic concepts that must be understood to follow the path of energy through the polar regions in relation to Broadcast Theory.

1.EIC waves cause electron precipitation which at relativistic energies generates X-ray 'bremsstrahlung' (breaking radiation) which interacts with            stratospheric nitrogen creating NO/NO2 and OH that depletes ozone.

2.EIC waves cause ion outflows and a density shift in charged particles in polar regions while cyclotron maser frequency waves flow up magnetic field lines toward the sun heating solar protons contributing to kink in the flux tubes near the sun and a backscatter of ion flow in the solar convective region. 

3.EICM waves slow ions in the solar wind and particle transport from the solar convective region, potentially contributing to delta type sunspots.

4.These sunspots in turn throw energy back at earth in the form of solar proton events that further deplete ozone.  

5.Powerline Harmonic Radiation (PLHR) effects the magnetospheric generation of cyclotron maser plasma waves combine with increasing       
            electron density in the polar regions act as a secondary source of ionization in ozones fragile creation process. 

1.EIC: Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves - [E layer ~1.45MHz] 
As EIC ionospheric plasma turbulence travels northward through the E layer toward the polar regions it undergoes amplification (magnetospheric dependant amplification), then in the cusp region where the magnetic field lines from the magnetosphere cross the ionosphere, it causes two populations of charged particles to flow out. One of them is a runaway population of electrons and ions from the ionosphere caused by the effects of the amplified cyclotron wave turbulence. The other is a population of relativistic electrons that precipitate from the magnetosphere.

Ionospheric EIC plasma wave intensifications crossing the magnetospheric flux tubes decrease the perpendicular force and change the pitch angle that magnetospheric particles rely on to stay trapped in the radiation belts allowing of particles to diffuse into the polar cusp at relativistic energies.

I will get into the effects of electron precipitation EEP-NOx and the different kinds in the next section on Ozone.

“Parallel to the well-known effects related to the seismic activity in the top side ionosphere such as small-scale irregularities generated due to acoustic waves (Hegai et.al.1997), and large-scale irregularities generated by anomalous electric field (Pulinets at al 2000), the modification of magnetic flux tube are also common features (Kim and Hegai 1997, Pulinets at al. 2002) So it seems that changes of the magnetic flux topology correlated with seismic activity can lead to the increase in the precipitation of energetic electron fluxes and, as a consequence, can yields excitation of the HF whistler mode. , H. Rothkaehl 2005” 
(Page 27)

2. The EIC waves travel as an electron beam spiraling along the magnetic field line with O+ and H+ ions that flow to the polar regions where they cause charged particle outflows up along the open Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) lines or the closed field lines of the radiation belt. The magnetic field lines come down upon the ionosphere as flux tubes in which the ions flow up and a charge exchange occurs causing electrons to precipitate down in what is called a Flux Transfer Event (FTE)

“One of the oldest known effects is electron heating in the F region which is caused largely by a thermal instability involving upper-hybrid plasma waves. Recently such electron heating has been shown to cause field-aligned ion outflows, which may help to further understand some of the naturally occurring outflows.” (Page 53)

“The outflow from the ionosphere is two orders of magnitude greater than predicted for the ‘‘classical’’ polar wind..” (Page 57)

Could it be that this extra ion upflow is coming from radio broadcast towers transmitting in the gyro-frequency range? 

3.Cyclotron maser waves flow into the solar wind toward the sun. The maser waves change the speed of particles flowing Earthward through the solar wind flux tube. It takes approximately 11 – 12 years for this cyclotron maser induced particle density wave to reach the convective zone of the sun where gas injections have been observed. The convective zone of the sun is a place of powerful reactions and the electrons on the surface of the sun will eagerly leap forth to equalize and charge imbalance incurred by a gas injection. These are many facets to this process that will not be fully covered in this version of Broadcast Theory, but are explained in further detail in the larger version. 

4.Sunspots throw energy back at earth in the form of solar proton events that can slash ozone levels 70%. These can be seen to not only follow the pattern of our historic use of broadcast frequencies, but cause a temperature variation that can be clearly seen in 1960. This was also known as Solar Cycle 19 and was the largest sunspot cycle on record and threw our ability to predict solar cycles out of alignment. Sunspots occur naturally according to the orbital paths of the planets around the sun and the crossing interplanetary magnetic field lines of two planets that are in alignment with the sun. There is a wealth of information on this topic as well as observations that will not be covered in this brief version of Broadcast Theory. 

“The general trend in recent solar activity cycles (Figure 1) is toward larger amplitude sunspot cycles; Cycle 19 was the largest in recorded history (smoothed sunspot number maximum of 201 in March, 1958)”

“Hathaway has several graphs showing different prediction methods applied to past sunspot cycles. That is, they used the data from early in a cycle to "predict" what the rest of the cycle would do. Most predictions match reality fairly close, except for Cycle 19, the current record cycle, which peaked at 190 in sunspot number in 1957, just as the first space physics satellites were being launched.”

“Earth-directed solar explosions, for instance, tend to happen every 27 days -- the time it takes for sunspots to rotate once around the Sun. There is also an occasional 155-day cycle of solar flares. No one knows what causes it. And the double peaks of recent solar maxima are separated by approximately 18 months.
The source of all this variability is the turbulent Sun itself. The outermost third of our star -- the "convective zone" -- is boiling like hot water on a stove. California-sized bubbles rise 200,000 km from the base of the zone to the Sun's surface where they turn over and "pop," releasing heat (generated by nuclear reactions in the core) to space. Below the convective zone lies the "radiative zone" -- a calmer region where photons, not mass motions, transport the Sun's energy outward. Says Hathaway: "The Sun's magnetic field is generated at the boundary between these two layers where strong electric currents flow."

The first graph clearly shows that the two are correlated, but because the temperature flux comes before the solar flux, the sun cannot drive the temperature. This can only occur if the same mechanism that causes the temperature to rise also caused the solar variation resulting in solar cycle 19, the largest unpredicted cycle on record in 1960. 

The 11 - 12 years between the two is the time is takes for the flux tube density irregularities to exchange between the sun and earth. 
More of this is covered in the full version of Broadcast Theory. 

5.Scientist have observed Powerline Harmonic Radiation (PLHR) on the magnetospheric generation of cyclotron maser plasma waves in combination with increasing electron density in the polar regions act as a secondary source of ionization in the ozone creation process. There is more on PLHR and this process in the full version of Broadcast Theory. 

“Many observations of PLHR related emissions have been made. It seems that PLHR can control many more natural emissions than has usually been believed. Recently a cooperation was started with Dr. M. Parrot searching for PLHR-related events in the Freja satellite data which have been recorded simultaneously with our ground-based observations.”

“Parrot reviewed power line harmonic radiation; spectral lines spaced 50-60 Hz apart in the magnetosphere and generally observed to drift in frequency. The "Sunday effect" had been used confirm an anthropogenic source (no natural 7-day period). He speculated on an atmospheric/ionospheric link between PLHR and the greenhouse effect (in addition to the usually quoted increase in CO2 emissions associated with power generation), which could increase in importance as electrical power consumption continued to increase.”

Polar Vortex
W E P - Whistler induced Electron Precipitation
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The electron-cyclotron maser instability as the source of solar type V continuum  
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O - zone & Weather
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Research Sections
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O - zone & Weather
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O - zone & Weather
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Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron plasma waves flow toward the polar regions and drive electron precipitation and  up open interplanetary magnetic field lines toward the sun
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O - zone & Weather
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2.  Cyclotron maser heating of solar protons in solar terrestrial flux tubes alter the speed of fast solar wind particles that lead to kinks in the flux tubes and energetic backscatter in the convective region of the sun. 
1. Ionospheric ion outflows contribute to density shifts in polar ions and electrons while changing the charged currents of particles flowing through solar-terrestrial flux tubes as well as flux tube morphology.
Type Delta Sunspots
Solar Cycle 19: 1958 ~ 60


12hr ~ 4 days

Early Artificial Whistler Waves:
Observations and interest
in whistler-mode waves and wave-particle interactions began nearly 60 years ago.

Helliwell and Gehrels [1958] noted the first observations of man-made whistler-mode signals, and a referenced conference paper by Helliwell [1962] mentioned the first observations of VLF triggered emissions. Neither work could be located in their entirety, but are referenced and summarized in Helliwell and Katsufrakis [1974] and Helliwell et al. [1964] respectively

A number of observations were made using signals transmitted from VLF Navy transmitters [Helliwell et al., 1964; Lasch, 1969] as shown in Figure 1.8 and from Omega navigation transmitters [Kimura, 1968],

Whistlers are sometimes observed to be preceded by discrete rising tone emissions, so called whistler precursors. Park and Helliwell [1977] made a number of observations using Siple and Roberval of these whistler precursors to link them with power line radiation.
Sunward Propagating Alfven Waves in Association with Sunward Drifting Proton Beams in the Solar Wind:

Using measurements from the WIND spacecraft, here we report the observation of sunward propagating Alfvén waves (AWs) in solar wind that is magnetically disconnected from the Earth's bow shock. In the sunward magnetic field sector, we find a period lasting for more than three days in which there existed (during most time intervals) a negative correlation between the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations, thus indicating that the related AWs are mainly propagating sunward. Simultaneous observations of counter-streaming suprathermal electrons suggest that these sunward AWs may not simply be due to the deflection of an open magnetic field line. Moreover, no interplanetary coronal mass ejection appears to be associated with the counter-streaming suprathermal electrons. As the scale goes from the magnetohydrodynamic down to the ion kinetic regime, the wave vector of magnetic fluctuations usually becomes more orthogonal to the mean magnetic field direction, and the fluctuations become increasingly compressible, which are both features consistent with quasi-perpendicular kinetic AWs. 

However, in the case studied here, we find clear signatures of quasi-parallel sunward propagating ion-cyclotron waves. Concurrently, the solar wind proton velocity distribution reveals a sunward field-aligned beam that drifts at about the local Alfvén speed. This beam is found to run in the opposite direction of the normally observed (anti-sunward) proton beam, and is apparently associated with sunward propagating Alfvén/ion-cyclotron waves. The results and conclusions of this study enrich our knowledge of solar wind turbulence and foster our understanding of proton heating and acceleration within a complex magnetic field geometry.
Can energy flow toward the sun? 
Before television and FM broadcast came over the airwaves the most powerful and consistent anthropogenic stimulation our ionosphere was subjected to was AM broadcast frequencies in the gyro frequency range and AM Apex stations which at the time had unfettered access to the E layer of the ionosphere and density ducts that channel Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron waves directly to the polar regions causing EEP-NOx

Sunward propagating Alfven/ion cyclotron waves have been observed in the solar wind along with heating and acceleration of sunward proton beams. 

Once enough higher frequencies pierced the topside of the E layer to reflect off the F layer of the ionosphere, the E layer was no longer able to provide a direct channel for Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron waves to the polar regions suppressing the EEP-NOx ozone depletion process and likely any enhanced effects in the solar-terrestrial connection. 
Ultra Short Wave - AM Apex
About the same time, experiments were begun using high fidelity AM transmissions at what was then considered the upper limits of practical radio technology. Those frequencies, between 25 and 42 MHz, were called “Ultra Short Wave.”

These radio stations were called “Apex” stations because of their high frequencies and high antenna locations.

They could operate up to 1,000 watts on several groups of frequencies at 25-26 MHz and 42 MHz

By 1939, there were Apex station stations operating in 34 cities in 22 states.

As today’s ten meter ham radio operators know very well, propagation conditions on the frequencies that were used by the Apex stations vary tremendously over the eleven year sunspot cycle.

The sun was just coming out of a sunspot minimum when the first Apex experiments began in 1932, so the new stations probably experienced mostly interference-free coverage during their first few years of operation. But sunspots were at their peak in 1936, and suddenly the experimental Apex stations were being heard all around the globe. 
11 year difference in temperature vs sunspot trend leading up to Solar Cycle 19 
Roles of whistler mode waves and magnetosonic waves in changing the outer radiation belt and the slot region

Using the Van Allen Probe long‐term (2013–2015) observations and quasi‐linear simulations of wave‐particle interactions, we examine the combined or competing effects of whistler mode waves (chorus or hiss) and magnetosonic (MS) waves on energetic (<0.5 MeV) and relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons inside and outside the plasmasphere. 

Although whistler mode chorus waves and MS waves can singly or jointly accelerate electrons from the hundreds of keV energy to the MeV energy in the low‐density trough, most of the relativistic electron enhancement events are best correlated with the chorus wave emissions outside the plasmapause. 

Inside the plasmasphere, intense plasmaspheric hiss can cause the net loss of relativistic electrons via persistent pitch angle scattering, regardless of whether MS waves were present or not. The intense hiss waves not only create the energy‐dependent electron slot region but also remove a lot of the outer radiation belt electrons when the expanding dayside plasmasphere frequently covers the outer zone. 

Since whistler mode waves (chorus or hiss) can resonate with more electrons than MS waves, they play dominant roles in changing the outer radiation belt and the slot region. However, MS waves can accelerate the energetic electrons below 400 keV and weaken their loss inside the plasmapause. Thus, MS waves and plasmaspheric hiss generate different competing effects on energetic and relativistic electrons in the high‐density plasmasphere..


Additional Notes: 

Ionospheric ~ Magnetospheric Coupling

A wave‐wave interaction in whistler frequency range in space plasma

The quantitative theory is developed for the frequency spectrum broadening and sideband structure of VLF signals in the upper ionosphere. The theory is based on a common theory of wave‐wave interaction in plasma and includes the transformation effects of a quasi‐monochromatic whistler wave into quasi‐electrostatic whistler mode waves (l waves) near the resonance cone with their interaction with field‐aligned plasma density (electric field) inhomogeneities. Such inhomogeneities can be ion‐acoustic or ion cyclotron electrostatic waves. We consider both cases of regular (deterministic plases) and irregular (random phases) inhomogeneities. The spectral characteristics and interaction length of l waves and some nonstationary effects are considered, which permit us to obtain the quantitative interpretation of main experimental data. The conditions of high coherence of interacting waves are investigated, which are compared with the results of bicoherence analysis of sideband structure of VLF signals. The estimations of bicoherence value are given for such type of wave‐wave interaction.

Quasielectrostatic and electrostatic approximations for whistler mode waves in the magnetospheric plasma

Three model electron distribution functions representative of the region between the plasmapause and the geostationary orbit are constructed. These models are used to compare numerical solutions of the hot electromagnetic dispersion equation with analytical solutions of the quasielectrostatic dispersion equation, and to compare numerical and analytical solutions of the electrostatic dispersion equation, for whistler mode propagation at wave normal angles θ close to the resonance cone angle θR. It is shown that the quasielectrostatic solutions are a reasonable approximation for all three models when θ < θR, but when θ > θR the approximation only remains good inside the plasmapause for frequencies ω equal to 0.4 times the electron gyrofrequency Ω. For θ > θR the agreement between numerical electromagnetic and electrostatic solutions is good when . Numerical results show that for the solutions to the quasielectrostatic equation for large refractive index correspond to strongly damped waves for each model.

On the problem of quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves: A possible interpretation of discrete plasmaspheric emissions - 1988

In a number of VLF experiments with low-orbiting Intercosmos satellites, high-intensity, discrete VLF emissions at frequencies above the local LHR were observed predominantly between L=2.3 and 4.0. The frequency of their intensity maximum varies continuously with geomagnetic latitude, and approximately parallels the value of a quarter of the equatorial electron gyrofrequency. An attempt is made to interprete these emissions in terms of quasi-electrostatic whistler-mode waves, generated in the near-equatorial region and propagating downward in the quasi-resonance mode. The generating mechanism is supposed to be the kinetic instability connected with the loss-cone and temperature anisotropy of the distribution function of energetic electrons. Some features of the discrete plasmaspheric emissions are discussed on the basis of theoretical considerations.

Spatial Distribution of Fine‐Structured and Unstructured EMIC Waves Observed by the Arase Satellite - June 2018

The spatial distribution of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is important and fundamental information from the point of view of wave‐particle interaction process. Several studies have determined the distributions of EMIC waves. However, they have been controversial, because there are several possible mechanisms for generating EMIC waves. We discriminated 378 events observed by Arase into two types, according to whether or not they exhibited clear periodic amplitude modulations. We found a clear afternoon peak in the occurrence probability of unstructured EMIC waves in the region of L = 5–9. This is consistent with previous observations. Fine‐structured EMIC waves were mainly distributed in the off‐equatorial region, and their occurrence probability was clearly high around noon. Such noon peaks had not been found in the THEMIS, AMPTE, or Cluster measurements, due to their limited L shell coverages. The Van Allen probes measured the region of L = 2–6, but they also did not report such a noon sector peak. Our statistical results suggest that the Van Allen probes, too, were not able to measure the major region of fine‐structured EMIC waves because of their limited latitudinal coverage. Our unique statistical results demonstrate the importance of discriminating the wave structures as well as of performing observations over a wide range of latitudes.

The Ares satellite launched in 2016 was able to image more of the magnetosphere and observed a peak in dayside EMIC wave generation. 
Also that EMIC waves appear structured.. I suspect through ionospheric waveguide ducting. So far EMIC waves are the leading culprit in relativistic electron precipitation. It's likely they are enhanced by gyrofrequency stimulation by AM Broadcast near high power VLF transmitters. 
Confirmation of EMIC wave-driven relativistic electron precipitation - 2016

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are believed to be an important source of
pitch angle scattering driven relativistic electron loss from the radiation belts. To date, investigations
of this precipitation have been largely theoretical in nature, limited to calculations of precipitation
characteristics based on wave observations and small-scale studies. Large-scale investigation of EMIC
wave-driven electron precipitation has been hindered by a lack of combined wave and precipitation
measurements. Analysis of electron flux data from the POES (Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites)
spacecraft has been suggested as a means of investigating EMIC wave-driven electron precipitation
characteristics, using a precipitation signature particular to EMIC waves. Until now the lack of supporting
wave measurements for these POES-detected precipitation events has resulted in uncertainty regarding
the driver of the precipitation. In this paper we complete a statistical study comparing POES precipitation
measurements with wave data from several ground-based search coil magnetometers; we further present
a case study examining the global nature of this precipitation. We show that a significant proportion of
the precipitation events correspond with EMIC wave detections on the ground; for precipitation events
that occur directly over the magnetometers, this detection rate can be as high as 90%. Our results
demonstrate that the precipitation region is often stationary in magnetic local time, narrow in L,
and close to the expected plasmapause position. Predominantly, the precipitation is associated with
helium band rising tone Pc1 waves on the ground. The success of this study proves the viability of POES
precipitation data for investigating EMIC wave-driven electron precipitation.http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/513194/1/Hendry_et_al-2016-Journal_of_Geophysical_Research__Space_Physics.pdf
Radiation Belt Electron Loss Mechanisms: New results

The radiation belt electron precipitation (RBEP) into the topside ionosphere is a phenomenon which is known for several decades. However, the radiation belt source and loss mechanisms have not still well understood, including PBEP. Here we present the results of a systematic study of RBEP observations, as obtained from the satellite DEMETER and the series of POES satellites, in comparison with variation of seismic activity. We found that this type of RBEP bursts present special characteristics in the inner region of the inner radiation belt before large (M>7, or even M>5) earthquakes (EQs), as for instance characteristic (a) flux-time profiles, (b) energy spectrum, (c) electron flux temporal evolution, (d) spatial distributions and (e) they are associated with broad band VLF activity, some days before an EQ. The RBEP before EQs appears, not only as a burst, but as an increase of the normal electron background flux in large range of latitudes during magnetospheric storms. Recent results, in the presence of a magnetospheric storm and of strong seismic activity, seem to suggest an increase of the normal flux in the slot region as well. We found significant evidence that, among EQs-lightings-Earth based transmitters, seismic activity is that agent which probably make the main contribution to the RBEP at middle latitudes. Further research is in progress in order to further test the present results.

If there are less REP events when the transmitter is on this might suggest that the VLF transmitter is suppressing REP. 

Though we need more data because there isn't enough transmitter OFF data to compare. Data set too small. 
Observations and Modeling of Increased Nitric Oxide in the Antarctic Polar Middle Atmosphere Associated With Geomagnetic Storm‐Driven Energetic Electron Precipitation

Nitric oxide (NO) produced in the polar middle and upper atmosphere by energetic particle precipitation depletes ozone in the mesosphere and, following vertical transport in the winter polar vortex, in the stratosphere. Medium‐energy electron (MEE) ionization by 30–1,000 keV electrons during geomagnetic storms may have a significant role in mesospheric NO production. However, questions remain about the relative importance of direct NO production by MEE at altitudes ~60–90 km versus indirect NO originating from auroral ionization above 90 km. We investigate potential drivers of NO variability in the southern‐hemisphere mesosphere and lower thermosphere during 2013–2014. Contrasting geomagnetic activity occurred during the two austral winters, with more numerous moderate storms in the 2013 winter. Ground‐based millimeter‐wave observations of NO from Halley, Antarctica, are compared with measurements by the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment (SOFIE) spaceborne spectrometer. NO partial columns over the altitude range 65–140 km from the two observational data sets show large day‐to‐day variability and significant disagreement, with Halley values on average 49% higher than the corresponding SOFIE data. SOFIE NO number densities, zonally averaged over geomagnetic latitudes −59° to −65°, are up to 3 × 108/cm3 higher in the winter of 2013 compared to 2014. Comparisons with a new version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, which includes detailed D‐region ion chemistry (WACCM‐SIC) and MEE ionization rates, show that the model underestimates NO in the winter lower mesosphere whereas thermospheric abundances are too high. This indicates the need to further improve and verify WACCM‐SIC with respect to MEE ionization, thermospheric NO chemistry, and vertical transport.

VLF Transmitter Induced Slot Electron Precipitation - 1977


The COMPASS2 satellite and the ground-based LOIS vector sensing radar facility as novel tools for ionospheric plasma diagnostics

The possibility that the ionosphere can be modified by powerful radio waves was first noted by Ginzburg and Gurevich (1960) (Gurevich, 1998 ). The earliest space observations of ionospheric modification due to human activity were observed by the VLF wave measurements on board the Ariel-3 and Ariel-4 satellites, which showed an increased electron precipitation during high-power VLF transmissons from the ground (Vampola et al., 1977; Bollough et al., 1985). The review article by Parrot and Zaslavski (1996) describes a large variety of observed phenomena related to human activities, such as wave–particle interactions, precipitation of radiation-belt electrons, parametric coupling of whistler waves, triggering emissions, wave frequency shifts, and spectrum broadening.