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Radio Frequencies and the Environment

In this section we will look at the effects that radio frequencies RF have on the environment. First we see what the scientists are saying, then I'll go into the science of the process. There has been a growing concern among atmospheric scientists who have recognized the potential hazard that broadcasting can have on the magneto-ionosphere coupling and the environment.                      Click on section to go to source document or article 











Polar Regions
[the ionosphere] "It is irradiated by the electromagnetic waves from the tens of thousands of broadcast, TV, utility and radar stations that are in use on the surface on the Earth. The radiated powers from the more powerful of these stations range from a few hundred kilowatts to a few megawatts. The handful of research radio facilities that use radio waves for studying the environment use the same type of transmitters with the same powers, but are so few that they contribute negligibly to the total man-made radiation"
Document Highlights
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The upper atmosphere and the ionosphere is a boundary region between Earth and space which is subject to numerous interactions between the gas-plasma mixture and electromagnetic (EM) radiation. While the plasma in this region is generated mainly by the extremely high-frequency EM radiation (UV, X-ray) of solar origin, the relatively much lower frequency EM radiation of natural and anthropogenic origin, emanating from sources in the lower atmosphere (e.g., thunderstorms) and on the ground (e.g., radio transmitters), gives rise to plasma turbulence which, in turn, may generate EM radiation. The various kinds of radiation contribute to the overall, and ever increasing, “electrosmog.”
Document Highlights
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The Science of this Process

(I will try to explain this as simply as I can without compromizing a complex process)

As you can see this process has been researched and they are beginning to see a larger picture emerge. A picture that says our environment is in danger from broadcast transmitters. Yet, out of air & radio pollution, while air pollution is the only one that is monitored and regulated, broadcasting of radio waves slips invisibly above us unregulated for it's effects on the environment and creates all kinds of chaos. The science of this process and it's path is a complex one and a story that has changed a few times in our history, but each and every change can be seen in the global temperature graph. It begins with the gyro frequency at ~1.45MHz.

One of the first clues I came across, through the SPS experiments, was that the frequency of the ionosphere (1.45MHz) happens to fall in the AM broadcast band. The ionosphere is a blanket of electricity that surrounds the planet, AM transmitters give it energy and it heats up just like an electric blanket. This isn't your normal heat, this is electron heating that can become unstable aka; TSI (Thermal Self-focusing Instability)

If you broadcast energy along this 1.45MHz frequency, the ionosphere  will act as a receiver and receive the energy through the gyro-frequency and transfer it through the cyclotron frequency (1.5MHz) into ion acoustic turbulence along the magnetic field line as ion cyclotron plasma waves.

Those familiar with radio wave propagation and DX'ing know that 160 meters, which is close to the gyro frequency, is unique and unlike any other frequency in it's propagation characteristics.

"Basically, the electron gyro-frequency is a measure of the interaction between an electron in the Earth's atmosphere and the Earth's magnetic field. The closer a transmitted a medium frequency carrier or sideband wave frequency is to the electron gyro-frequency, the more energy that is absorbed by the gyro electrons from that carrier wave frequency. This is especially true for medium frequency signals traveling perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field, meaning high latitude NW and NE propagation paths. Unfortunately this form of medium frequency signal absorption is ALWAYS present."

Gyro-Fact: The gyro frequency has unique thresholds for the onset of secondary instabilities

During experiments at the HAARP facility they found that ion cyclotron waves were stimulated better on and just above the second gyro-harmonic, but the higher harmonic multiples of the gyro frequency all create a suppression of the ion flow along the ion acoustic line. This is important to remember for later, you will need to understand this to read the global temperature anomalies graph, as this supression can be seen in the temperature drop of the 1940's when television came on the airwaves.                     Click to go to source

There have been a chain of secondary instabilities in the atmosphere surrounding this gyro-frequency

The energy transferred through the gyro frequency rides two major instabilities that occur as you move up the electromagnetic frequency spectrum. The first is the cyclotron instability at ~1.45MHz and the second the cyclotron maser instability at 2.45 GHz which happens to be the same frequency that WiFi and microwave ovens run on. I remember learning about what microwaves actually do to heat the food. They cause the electrons in water molecules to vibrate rapidly creating heat, while electrons free of molecular bonds will begin to spin or spiral this can imbalance chemical reactions easily.  I wondered if the gyro energy from AM radio could travel to the polar regions and somehow effect  ozone holes. It does!

                                    ~1.45MHz   The Cyclotron Instability -AM broadcast band                           


















This band typically runs hot due to AM broadcast
                                 well into the Gyro & cyclotron frequency range                      





   Another important condition that was crucial for the SEE can be explained in terms of charges in gyro motion around the Earth's magnetic field lines. Magnetic fields bend the paths of charges so they move perperdiculary to the field lines, i. e. in circles or spirals around the field lines, of which the frequency depends on the charge and the mass of the particle in question. Pump waves corresponding in frequency to these natural gyro motions of electrons tend to further accelerate the gyro motion, just like a forced harmonic oscillator. In the case of HF pumping this in the end leads to strong turbulence in the space plasma.    Click to go to


                                       ~2.45 GHz  The Cyclotron MASER Instability - Wifi & microwave oven
(microwave amplification by stimulation emission of radiation)

the cyclotron maser instability may also be regarded simply as a growing space-charge wave in a relativistic beam which is in synchronism with the surrounding structure, or as due to current bunching, or even as an instability of the shear flow of a rotating relativistic electron fluid.      Click & go

The manifestation of this instability occures in the magnetosphere as high energy particles are increased in energy by PLHR powerline harmonic radiation, VLF transmitters and AM broadcasting in the
gyro frequency range as the cyclotron energy jumps up (Luxembourg effect) from a 1.45MHz frequency to the 2.45GHz maser electron beam spiraling along the magmetic field lines with O+ and H+ ions that flow to precipitate as electron showers into the lower atmosphere and not only act as a secondary form of ionization, and lightning, but might act as a source for long chain molecules. The cyclotron maser is used to heat radioactive plasma for energy in nuclear power plants and is used commercially to form and sustain long chain molecules similar to greenhouse gasses found in the atmosphere. . .

Threshold for TSI is 5 to 10 times more sensitive.on gyro frequencies and once it sets in, it increases by a factor of twice the magnitude and x400 when in lightening

Electron-Cyclotron Maser Driven by Charged-Particle Acceleration from Magnetic Fieldaligned Electric Fields
This finding may necessitate reanalysis of some astrophysical radio sources and allow the electron-cyclotron
maser to be applied to radio sources that have not been considered viable in the past ; for example, very
bright, continuous sources or broadband sources. Parallel electric fiields may be more widespread in astrophysical plasmas than currently believed.              Click & go

Luxembourg Effect

A Luxembourg effect is when two signals cross modulate causing a modified signal to jump to a higher frequency and can be seen in the Siple Station experiments in Antarctica. Here the frequency is seen to jump from 1.45kHz up to 3kHz. The energy will follow the easiest path, on the path of least resistance sometimes skipping up to a less busy band. They were able to generate electron precipitation with 1 watt of power.












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Almost every VLF researcher has observed some HF radio broadcasts in their recordings.Three different RF receivers were used, spanning the frequency range 30 kHz to 30 MHz; although these could receive all kind of transmissions (CW, SSB, FM, AM, etc.), only AM broadcasts seemed to be detected in the VLF frequency range. A spectrum analyzer was used to investigate the power distribution across a broad frequency band (~1-10 Mhz). The available transmitter identifications showed that the distance to the transmitter was often quite long. Only one station at a time has usually been heard, showing that the process is very selective. It is also common that the event shows clear periodicity.    Click to go to

The circular energy from the radio wave is transferred through the gyro-frequency generating gravity waves and ion acoustic turbulent flows in the form of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves (EIC). These ion acoustic waves duct along the magnetic field lines and actually amplify as they reach the polar regions.
Human activity also can perturb Earth’s environment, but few are connected with controlled experiments in the ionosphere and are transient. Most of them are related to industrial activity and have increased in recent years. The most important power sources are broadcasting transmitters, power stations, power lines and heavy industry. At ionospheric altitude some disturbances and physical processes are related to seismic activity, thunderstorm activity and some global changes in the Earth environment
such as ozone holes.
Document Highlights
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DEMETER Micro-Satellite
At VLF frequencies between 10 and 20 kHz, the ground-based transmitters are used for radio-navigation and communications. Their ionospheric perturbations include: the triggering of new waves, ionospheric heating, wave-electron interactions, and particle precipitation. At HF frequencies, the broadcasting stations utilise powerful transmitters which can heat the ionosphere and change the temperature and the density. All these wave dissipations in the ionosphere could participate to the global warming of the Earth because the change in global temperature increases the number of natural lightning discharges in the atmosphere. Then the supplementary lightning discharges produce more magnetospheric whistlers which could produce heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere.
Furthermore, it is a feedback mechanism because two different processes could be involved. First, lightning is a source of NOx, and NOx affects the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere which contributes to the greenhouse effect. Second, precipitation of energetic electrons by man?made waves may trigger other lightning discharges.
It explains the importance of the study of such man-made waves
These are only a few of the many documents that I have collected reguarding this ozone depletion mechanism
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Gyro Frequency
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Electric Blanket & TSI
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More Gyro Frequency
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More Cyclotron waves
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Gyro Frequency Map

Parrot reviewed power line harmonic radiation; spectral lines spaced 50-60 Hz apart in the magnetosphere and generally observed to drift in frequency. The "Sunday effect" had been used confirm an anthropogenic source (no natural 7-day period). He speculated on an atmospheric/ionospheric link between PLHR and the greenhouse effect (in addition to the usually quoted increase in CO2 emissions associated with power generation), which could increase in importance as electrical power consumption continued to increase.                                                      PLHR (Power Line Harmonic Radiation)
Solar Power Satellite
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"Experimental results from three ionospheric HF pumping experiments in overdense E or F regions are summarized....It is suggested that two populations of charged particles are at play. One of them is the runaway population of electrons and ions from the ionosphere caused by the effects of the powerful HF radio wave. The other is the population of electrons that precipitate from the magnetosphere. It is shown that the hydrodynamical equilibrium was disrupted due to the effects of the HF pumping."
Hydrpdynsmical equilibrium is a factor in stratospheric ozone
"Raining" Electrons Contribute To Ozone Destruction"
Evidence shows electrons precipitating or 'raining' from Earth's magnetosphere are destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere.
Low Power Luxembourg
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Siple Experiments
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Cyclotron Waves are the manifestation of this instability in the ionosphere as electrons flow in a spiral motion along the magnetic field lines which act as a duct or wave-guide for the energy. The electron and ion cyclotron waves amplify as they travel toward the polar regions

The enhancement in the spectral intensity is seen in two different characteristic frequency ranges. One is seen at odd half harmonics of the local electron cyclotron frequency in the range from 1.5 MHz to 3.5 MHz. The frequency range of these waves did not change with altitude as the local electron cyclotron frequency is almost constant in the orbit range of the rocket. Taking into account the observed frequency range and discrete peaks at odd half cyclotron frequencies, we explained these waves in terms of electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves.        Click to go to
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The presence of the cyclotron instabilities and their sensitivity to stimulation by the gyro frequency makes them greater paths for cyclotron energy. If you overdrive the ionospheres density with FM and television the conductivity increases allowing the suppressed cyclotron energy along the magnetic field line to jump and transfer to a higher gyroharmonic path So although the ion acoustic turbulence along the magnetic field line gets clamped  by FM & TV, the energy will find a path of least resistance to the polar regions in the form of plasma cyclotron waves.  It may be that it can find a lower path in the VLF range (20-30kHz also appears sensitive) or it could be that VLF waves are generated in the frequency jump process

Up-shifted frequency electron-cyclotron current drive in a lower hybrid current drive plasma
Using oblique injection of electron-cyclotron (EC) waves, launched from the low field side of the WT-3 tokamak, into a target plasma sustained by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), the plasma current is ramped up at a rate corresponding to 100 kA/s. The current ramp-up is ascribed to selective EC heating of tail electrons in the LHCD plasma via fundamental EC resonance at an up-shifted frequency due to the Doppler effect.

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4th Gyro harmonic
SEE - Sweep thru
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SEE - STIMULATED ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS
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The Science of this Process - Parts & Process

The effects of radio frequencies on the ionosphere can be broken down into four major areas of relevance to understanding the path of energy in Broadcast Theory.

1.The transfer of energy from AM broadcast through the gyrofrequency and the generation of (EIC) electrostatic ion cyclotron plasma waves along the magnetic field line.

2.Multiples of the gyrofrequency above the 2nd gyro harmonic cause a suppression of the EIC plasma waves along the magnetic field line.

3.Television and FM broadcast fall in this suppression band and cause hybrid waves that overdrive the ionosphere and increase the electron density.

4.The increase of electron density due to TV and FM act as a conductive bridge for the AM energy to jump to a higher cyclotron path.




1.Before we can develop a clear picture as to how the energy transfers through the ionosphere, we have to understand a few basics about the ionospheres’ structure and how it attenuates radio waves. The ionosphere is a blanket of electrons that surround the planet beginning at an altitude of about 65km which is known as the D layer of the ionosphere. This layer of the ionosphere absorbs the lowest frequencies from broadcast. As we move higher to about 100 km we find the E layer which absorbs the low – mid frequencies. Continuing higher the electron density drops into what is called the E valley and then climbs out and up to the F layer with the highest electron density that absorbs the higher frequencies from broadcast. Of all the frequencies that are absorbed two of them transfer their energy to the surrounding plasma regardless of altitude. These frequencies are known as gyro frequencies and are at 1.45MHz (cyclotron) and 2.45GHz (cyclotron maser). 1.45MHz is the frequency of the ionosphere itself and also falls in the AM broadcast band. Because of this the ionosphere reacts to AM broadcast like a tuning fork. The co resonation acts as a bridge for the energy to pass from one to the other.
Gyro frequencies cause electrons to spin in a spiral path at an accelerated rate. A good example of this is the use of the gyro frequency 2.45GHz to heat food in a microwave oven. As the electrons vibrate they generate heat. This is the same process that occurs in the ionosphere. Scientists have observed direct ionopsheric heating over areas of broadcast transmitters, particularly Europe and Asia. The electromagnetic energy from AM broadcast transfers its energy through the gyrofrequency in the form of electrostatic ion cyclotron plasma waves (EIC waves) that travel along the waveguide of the magnetic field lines. 

“Unfortunately medium frequencies fall within or very near the electron gyro-frequency which is in the approximate range of 630 to 1630 kHz and of course the AM broadcast band and 160 meter band is very close to these electron gyro frequencies. There is a direct correlation between the strength of Earth's magnetic field lines and electron gyro frequencies.

Basically, the electron gyro frequency is a measure of the interaction between an electron in the Earth's atmosphere and the Earth's magnetic field. The closer a transmitted medium frequency carrier or sideband wave frequency is to the electron gyro frequency, the more energy that is absorbed by the gyro (spinning) electrons from that carrier wave frequency. This is especially true for medium frequency signals traveling perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field, meaning high latitude NW and NE propagation paths. Unfortunately this form of medium frequency signal absorption is ALWAYS present.” (Page 34)

“The enhancement in the spectral intensity is seen in two different characteristic frequency ranges. One is seen at odd half harmonics of the local electron cyclotron frequency in the range from 1.5 MHz to 3.5 MHz. The frequency range of these waves did not change with altitude as the local electron cyclotron frequency is almost constant in the orbit range of the rocket. Taking into account the observed frequency range and discrete peaks at odd half cyclotron frequencies, we explained these waves in terms of electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves.” (Page 45)

“The spectra measured in the HF frequency range onboard the Intercosmos-19, Cosmos-1809, ACTIVE, APEX and CORONAS-I satellites revealed unusual features suggesting a strong modification of the electron plasma in the topside ionosphere over densely populated areas of Europe and Asia. The location of broadband enhancements of about 20 dB relative to the cosmic noise over these areas is evident”
(Pages 20 & 26)



2.Since we first discovered broadcasting technology we have been slowly turning up the dial using higher and higher frequencies starting with AM then moving onto FM and television. As our frequency use climbed to higher altitudes affecting higher layers of the ionosphere we breached the E layer of the ionosphere. Frequencies that were higher than the E layer would go through and reflect off the F layer back down to the E layer at an angle causing what is known as a ‘hybrid wave’ suppression of the EIC waves along the magnetic field line.

“On 25 February 2004, HAARP was operated near the third and passed through the second gyro-harmonic for the first time in a weakening ionosphere. Two novel observations are: firstly, a strong enhancement of the artificial optical emission intensity near the second gyro-harmonic, which is opposite
to higher gyro-harmonics; secondly, the optical enhancement maximum occurs for frequencies just above the second gyro-harmonic.” (Pages 40)



3.Between the E layer, which transfers 1.45MHz into EIC waves, and the F layer, that transfers 2.45GHz into EIC maser waves, there is a band of suppression and is stronger on each multiple of the gyro-harmonic above the 2nd. This causes a back up of the energy and the electron density and temperature increases. (see above)


4.Furthermore the hybrid waves from FM and television also increase the electron density and overdrive the ionosphere. An effective way to understand this is to look at the E and F layers as conductive layers of an onion with nothing but a gap in between. If the gap is filled with electrons a bridge is created and the AM broadcast gyro frequency energy jumps to the F layer and EIC waves begin to flow over the area of suppression just like a dam that has too much water and overflows. This kind of energy transfer occurs when the E layer reaches a critical density then burst in the form of striations in the plasma that form into a flux transfer tube to the F layer which disrupts the ion acoustic turbulence. It can also be heard in VLF recordings.

“Almost every VLF researcher has observed some HF radio broadcasts in their recordings. Usually the phenomenon has been interpreted as due to demodulation by non-linearities in the receiver electronics. Identification of the detected broadcasts was done by an experienced radio amateur. Three different RF receivers were used, spanning the frequency range 30 kHz to 30 MHz; although these could receive all kind of transmissions (CW, SSB, FM, AM, etc.), only AM broadcasts seemed to be detected in the VLF frequency range. A spectrum analyser was used to investigate the power distribution across a broad frequency band (~1-10 Mhz). The available transmitter identifications showed that the distance to the transmitter was often quite long. Only one station at a time has usually been heard, showing that the process is very selective. It is also common that the event shows clear periodicity. Usually demodulated signals seem to favour speech and "classical" music.” (Page 35)


“FAST satellite observations have now provided conclusive evidence that the electron-cyclotron maser driven by a shell instability is responsible for the coherent generation of AKR. This Ðnding may necessitate reanalysis of some astrophysical radio sources and allow the electroncyclotron maser to be applied to radio sources that have not been considered viable in the past ; for  xample, very bright, continuous sources or broadband sources.” (Page 43)

Peculiarities of Long-Term Trends of Surface Temperature in Antarctica and
                   Click & go                  Their Possible Connections with Outer Belt Electron Precipitation
I highly recommend the Document Highlights!
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Click image to Enlarge
Note: 2.45GHz Microwave & WiFi are efficient low power technology and likely has little effect on plasma wave generation.

This is how a Luxembourg effect
might look like as AM gyro energy finds a conductive path between the E & F Layers of the ionosphere.
Once the E layer reaches critical density a flux tube forms. This generates VLF waves.
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Research Sections
Polar Regions
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Polar Regions
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